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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)

 QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020

OR

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _______ to _______

Commission file number: 001-38242
OrthoPediatrics Corp.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
26-1761833
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

2850 Frontier Drive
Warsaw, IN 46582
(574) 268-6379
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.00025 par value per shareKIDSNasdaq Global Market
________________________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes     No

As of May 4, 2020, the registrant had 17,818,443 outstanding shares of common stock, $0.00025 par value per share.



OrthoPediatrics Corp.
Form 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Item 5
Item 6








NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this quarterly report, including statements regarding our business, operations and financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business, operations and financial performance and condition, are forward-looking statements. You can often identify forward-looking statements by words such as "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "might," "target," "ongoing," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," "should," "will" or "would," or the negative of these terms or other terms. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, such as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, that may cause our results, activity levels, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements relating to:

our ability to achieve or sustain profitability in the future;

our ability to raise additional capital to fund our existing commercial operations, develop and commercialize new products and expand our operations;

our ability to commercialize our products in development and to develop and commercialize additional products through our research and development efforts, and if we fail to do so we may be unable to compete effectively;

our ability to generate sufficient revenue from the commercialization of our products to achieve and sustain profitability;

our ability to comply with extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and abroad;

our ability to maintain and expand our network of third-party independent sales agencies and distributors to market and distribute our products; and

our ability to protect our intellectual property rights or if we are accused of infringing on the intellectual property rights of others;

We cannot assure you that forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate, and you are encouraged not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. You are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made by us in this quarterly report, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on March 5, 2020 and in other reports filed with the SEC that discuss the risks and factors that may affect our business. Other than as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information, events or circumstances occurring after the date of this quarterly report.
3


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
ORTHOPEDIATRICS CORP.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
(In Thousands, Except Share Data)
March 31, 2020December 31, 2019
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash$53,580  $70,777  
Restricted Cash1,361  1,250  
Accounts receivable - trade, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $176 and $506, respectively
14,118  16,003  
Inventories, net43,966  38,000  
Notes receivable582  564  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,514  1,464  
Total current assets115,121  128,058  
Property and equipment, net24,078  21,349  
Other assets:
Amortizable intangible assets, net15,121  14,484  
Goodwill15,179  13,773  
Other intangible assets4,700  4,490  
Total other assets35,000  32,747  
Total assets$174,199  $182,154  
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable - trade$8,262  $6,467  
Accrued compensation and benefits2,977  4,349  
Current portion of long-term debt with affiliate126  124  
Other current liabilities2,467  2,723  
Total current liabilities13,832  13,663  
Long-term liabilities:
Long-term debt with affiliate, net of current portion21,043  26,067  
Other long-term liabilities57  63  
Total long-term liabilities21,100  26,130  
Total liabilities34,932  39,793  
Stockholders' equity:
Common stock, $0.00025 par value; 50,000,000 shares authorized; 16,887,674 shares and 16,723,128 shares issued as of March 31, 2020 (unaudited) and December 31, 2019, respectively
4  4  
Additional paid-in capital274,578  271,182  
Treasury stock, at cost; 4,014 and 0 shares at March 31, 2020 (unaudited) and December 31, 2019, respectively
(187)   
Accumulated deficit(133,767) (128,822) 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(1,361) (3) 
Total stockholders' equity139,267  142,361  
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$174,199  $182,154  
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
4


ORTHOPEDIATRICS CORP.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited)
(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20202019
Net revenue$16,356  $14,656  
Cost of revenue4,143  4,001  
Gross profit12,213  10,655  
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing7,564  6,547  
General and administrative7,881  5,612  
Research and development1,265  1,213  
Total operating expenses16,710  13,372  
Operating loss(4,497) (2,717) 
Other expenses:
Interest expense, net379  303  
Other expense69    
Total other expenses448  303  
Net loss$(4,945) $(3,020) 
Weighted average common stock - basic and diluted16,423,853  14,367,056  
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders - basic and diluted$(0.30) $(0.21) 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


ORTHOPEDIATRICS CORP.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited)
(In Thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20202019
Net loss$(4,945) $(3,020) 
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
     Foreign currency translation adjustment(1,358) 301  
Other comprehensive (loss) income(1,358) 301  
Comprehensive loss$(6,303) $(2,719) 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


ORTHOPEDIATRICS CORP.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited)
(In Thousands, Except Share Data)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Accumulated
AdditionalOtherTotal
Common StockTreasury StockPaid-inAccumulatedComprehensiveStockholders'
SharesValueSharesValueCapitalDeficitIncome (Loss)Equity
Balance at January 1, 202016,723,128  $4    $  $271,182  $(128,822) $(3) $142,361  
Net loss—  —  —  —  —  (4,945) —  (4,945) 
Other comprehensive income—  —  —  —  —  —  (1,358) (1,358) 
Stock option exercise22,208  —  —  —  688  —  —  688  
Restricted stock105,710  —  —  958  —  —  958  
Consideration for Telos Acquisition36,628  —  —  —  1,750  —  —  1,750  
Repurchase of common stock—  —  (4,014) (187) —  —  —  (187) 
Balance at March 31, 202016,887,674  $4  (4,014) $(187) $274,578  $(133,767) $(1,361) $139,267  

Three Months Ended March 31, 2019
Accumulated
AdditionalOtherTotal
Common StockPaid-inAccumulatedComprehensiveStockholders'
SharesValueCapitalDeficitIncome (Loss)Equity
Balance at January 1, 201914,538,202  $4  $197,442  $(115,091) $(623) $81,732  
Net loss—  —  —  (3,020) —  (3,020) 
Other comprehensive income—  —  —  —  301  301  
Stock option exercise18,427  —  565  —  —  565  
Restricted stock125,769  —  471  —  —  471  
Balance at March 31, 201914,682,398  $4  $198,478  $(118,111) $(322) $80,049  

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


ORTHOPEDIATRICS CORP.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(In Thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202019
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net loss$(4,945) $(3,020) 
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization1,375  828  
Stock-based compensation958  471  
Changes in certain current assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable - trade760  (1,180) 
Inventories(5,096) (2,156) 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(56) (196) 
Accounts payable - trade1,739  2,373  
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(1,694) (719) 
Other3  128  
Net cash used in operating activities(6,956) (3,471) 
INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Acquisition of Telos, net of cash acquired(1,670)   
Purchases of licenses  (19) 
Purchases of property and equipment(3,953) (4,963) 
Net cash used in investing activities(5,623) (4,982) 
FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Payments on note with affiliate(5,000)   
Repurchases of common shares(187)   
Proceeds from exercise of stock options688  565  
Payments on mortgage notes(31) (29) 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(4,530) 536  
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash23    
NET DECREASE IN CASH(17,086) (7,917) 
Cash and restricted cash, beginning of year$72,027  $60,691  
Cash and restricted cash, end of period$54,941  $52,774  
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES
Cash paid for interest$379  $303  
Transfer of instruments from property and equipment to inventory$182  $217  
Issuance of common shares to acquire Telos$1,750  $  
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
8


ORTHOPEDIATRICS CORP.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
(Dollars In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share data)

NOTE 1 – BUSINESS

OrthoPediatrics Corp., a Delaware corporation, is a medical device company committed to designing, developing and marketing anatomically appropriate implants and devices for children with orthopedic conditions, giving pediatric orthopedic surgeons and caregivers the ability to treat children with technologies specifically designed to meet their needs. We sell our specialized products, including PediLoc®, PediPlates®, Cannulated Screws, PediFlexTM nail, PediNailTM, PediLoc® Tibia, ACL Reconstruction System, Locking Cannulated Blade, Locking Proximal Femur, Spica Tables, RESPONSE Spine, BandLoc, Pediguard, Pediatric Nailing Platform | Femur, Orthex, and QuickPackTM, to various hospitals and medical facilities throughout the United States and various international markets. We currently use a contract manufacturing model for the manufacturing of implants and related surgical instrumentation.

In 2017, we expanded operations and established legal entities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, permitting us to sell under an agency model direct to local hospitals in these countries. In September 2018, we further expanded operations in Canada selling direct to local hospitals, and in January 2019 we expanded to Belgium and the Netherlands. Additionally, in March 2019 we established a holding company and an operating company in the Netherlands and began selling direct to Italy in March 2020 enhancing our operations in Europe.

On June 4, 2019, we purchased all the issued and outstanding shares of stock of Vilex in Tennessee, Inc. ("Vilex") and all the issued and outstanding units of membership interests in Orthex, LLC ("Orthex") for $60,000 in total consideration. Vilex and Orthex (the "Vilex Companies") are primarily manufacturers of foot and ankle surgical implants, including cannulated screws, fusion devices, surgical staples and bone plates, as well as Orthex Hexapod technology which is used to treat pediatrics congenital deformities and limb length discrepancies.

On December 31, 2019, we divested substantially all of the assets relating to Vilex's adult product offerings to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Squadron Capital LLC ("Squadron") in exchange for a $25,000 reduction in a Term Note owed to Squadron in connection with the initial acquisition. As part of the sale, we also executed an exclusive license arrangement with Squadron providing for perpetual access to certain intellectual property and a mutual distribution agreement.

On March 9, 2020, we purchased all the issued and outstanding membership interest of Telos Partners, LLC ("Telos") for $3,500 in total consideration. Telos is a boutique regulatory consulting firm formed in Colorado.

Our largest investor is Squadron, a private investment firm based in Granby, Connecticut.


NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of OrthoPediatrics Corp. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, OrthoPediatrics US Distribution Corp., OrthoPediatrics EU Limited, OrthoPediatrics AUS PTY LTD, OrthoPediatrics NZ Limited, OP EU B.V., OP Netherlands B.V.,
9


Vilex in Tennessee, Inc., Orthex, LLC, and Telos Partners, LLC (collectively, the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

We have prepared the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 and the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 are unaudited and should be read in conjunction with the annual consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 and related notes thereto contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") on March 5, 2020. The financial data and other financial information disclosed in the notes to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are also unaudited. As such, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to applicable rules and regulations thereunder.

The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 and, in management’s opinion, include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the financial statements for the interim periods. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full fiscal year or for any other period.

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming our Company will continue as a going concern. We have experienced recurring losses from operations since our inception and had an accumulated deficit of $133,767 and $128,822 as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Management continues to monitor cash flows and liquidity on a regular basis. We believe that our cash balance at March 31, 2020 and expected cash flows from operations for the next twelve months subsequent to the issuance of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, are sufficient to enable us to maintain current and essential planned operations for more than the next twelve months.

Use of Estimates

Preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements. By their nature, these judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. The impact of the coronavirus disease ("COVID-19") has significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty. We use historical experience and other assumptions as the basis for our judgments and estimates. Because future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, actual results could differ significantly from these estimates. Any changes in these estimates will be reflected in the condensed consolidated financial statements.

Foreign Currency Transactions

We currently bill our international distributors in United States ("U.S.") dollars, resulting in minimal foreign exchange transaction expense.

Beginning in the second quarter of 2017, we began selling direct within the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand and billing using the local currency for each country. In September 2018, we
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began selling direct in Canada, in January 2019 in Belgium and the Netherlands and in March 2020 in Italy. The financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries are accounted for and have been translated into U.S. dollars using end-of-period exchange rates for assets and liabilities and average exchange rates during each reporting period for results of operations. Foreign currency translation adjustments have been recorded as a separate component of the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.

Revenue from Contracts with Customers

In accordance with ASC 606, "Revenue From Contracts With Customers (ASC 606)", revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these goods or services, and excludes any sales incentives or taxes collected from a customer which are subsequently remitted to government authorities.

Revenue Recognition – United States

Revenue in the United States is generated primarily from the sale of our implants and, to a much lesser extent, from the sale of our instruments. Sales in the United States are primarily to hospital accounts through independent sales agencies. We recognize revenue when our performance obligations under the terms of a contract with our customer are satisfied. This typically occurs when we transfer control of our products to the customers, generally upon implantation or when title passes upon shipment. The products are generally consigned to our independent sales agencies, and revenue is recognized when the products are used by or shipped to the hospital for surgeries on a case by case basis. On rare occasions, hospitals purchase products for their own inventory, and revenue is recognized when the products are shipped and the title and risk of loss passes to the customer. Pricing for each customer is dictated by a unique pricing agreement, which does not generally include rebates or discounts.

Revenue Recognition – International

Outside of the United States, we primarily sell our products through independent stocking distributors. Generally, the distributors are allowed to return products, and some are thinly capitalized. Based on our history of collections and returns from international customers, prior to 2019, we concluded that collectibility was not reasonably assured at the time of delivery for certain customers who had not evidenced a consistent pattern of timely payment. Accordingly, in the past we did not recognize international revenue and associated cost of revenue at the time title transfers for these customers for whom collectibility had not been deemed probable based on the customer’s history and ability to pay, but rather when cash had been received.
Following a review of our collection history, we deemed collectibility was probable for all international stocking distributors effective January 1, 2019. Based on a history of reliable collections, we have concluded that a contract exists and revenue should be recognized when our performance obligations under the terms of the contract with our customer are satisfied. This typically occurs when we transfer control of our products to the customer, generally upon implantation or when title passes upon shipment.
In the countries where we sell under an agency model direct to local hospitals, the products are generally consigned to our independent sales agencies, and revenue is recognized when the products are used by or shipped to the hospital for surgeries on a case by case basis. On rare occasions, hospitals purchase products for their own inventory, and revenue is recognized when the products are shipped and the title and risk of loss passes to the customer. Pricing for each customer is dictated by a unique pricing agreement, which does not generally include rebates or discounts.




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Cash and Cash Equivalents

We maintain cash in bank deposit accounts which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. To date, we have not experienced any loss in such accounts. We consider all highly liquid investments with original maturity of three months or less at inception to be cash equivalents. The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheet for cash are valued at cost, which approximates fair value.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are uncollateralized customer obligations due under normal trade terms, generally requiring payment within 30 days from the invoice date. Account balances with invoices over 30 days past due are considered delinquent. No interest is charged on past due accounts. Payments of accounts receivable are applied to the specific invoices identified on the customer's remittance advice or, if unspecified, to the customer's account as an unapplied credit.

The carrying amount of accounts receivable is reduced by an allowance that reflects management's best estimate of the amounts that will not be collected, determined principally on the basis of historical experience, management's assessment of the collectability of specific customer accounts and the aging of the accounts receivable. All accounts or portions thereof deemed to be uncollectible or to require an excessive collection cost are written off to the allowance for doubtful accounts.

Inventories, net

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost determined using the first-in-first-out method. Inventories, which consist of implants and instruments held in our warehouse or with third-party independent sales agencies or distributors, are considered finished goods and are purchased from third parties.

We evaluate the carrying value of our inventories in relation to the estimated forecast of product demand, which takes into consideration the life cycle of the product. A significant decrease in demand could result in an increase in the amount of excess inventory on hand, which could lead to additional charges for excess and obsolete inventory.

The need to maintain substantial levels of inventory impacts our estimates for excess and obsolete inventory. Each of our implant systems are designed to include implantable products that come in different sizes and shapes to accommodate the surgeon’s needs. Typically, a small number of the set components are used in each surgical procedure. Certain components within each set may become obsolete before other components based on the usage patterns. We adjust inventory values, as needed, to reflect these usage patterns and life cycle.

In addition, we continue to introduce new products, which may require us to take additional charges for excess and obsolete inventory in the future.

Property and Equipment, net

Property and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the assets. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, costs and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in operations for the period. Maintenance and repairs that prolong or extend the useful life are capitalized, whereas standard maintenance, replacements, and repair costs are expensed as incurred.

Instruments are hand-held devices, specifically designed for use with our implants and are used by surgeons during surgery. Instruments deployed within the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New
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Zealand, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and are recorded in property and equipment, net on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.

Sample inventory consists of our implants and instruments, and is maintained to market and promote our products. Sample inventory is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation.

Depreciable lives are generally as follows:
Building and building improvements
25 to 30 years
Furniture and fixtures
5 to 7 years
Computer equipment
3 to 5 years
Business software
3 years
Office and other equipment
5 to 7 years
Instruments
5 years
Sample inventory
2 years

Amortizable Intangible Assets, net

Amortizable intangible assets include fees necessary to secure various patents and licenses, the value of internally developed software, customer relationships, and non-competition agreements related to the acquisition of Orthex and customer relationships and non-competition agreements related to the acquisition of Telos. Amortization is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. Amortization for patents and licenses commences at the time of patent approval and market launch, respectively. Amortization for assets acquired commences upon acquisition. Intangible assets are amortized over a 3 to 20 year period.

Amortizable intangible assets are assessed for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the associated asset. If such assets are determined to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the assets. No impairment charges were recorded in any of the periods presented.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Our goodwill represents the excess of the cost over the fair value of net assets acquired. The determination of the value of goodwill and intangible assets arising from acquisitions requires extensive use of accounting estimates and judgments to allocate the purchase price to the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized and is assessed for impairment using fair value measurement techniques on an annual basis or more frequently if facts and circumstances warrant such a review. The goodwill is considered to be impaired if we determine that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its respective fair value.

We have indefinite lived tradename assets that are reviewed for impairment by performing a quantitative analysis, which occurs annually in the fourth quarter or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the associated asset. If such assets are determined to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the assets. No impairment charges were recorded in any of the periods presented.


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Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists primarily of products purchased from third-party suppliers, excess and obsolete inventory adjustments, inbound freight, and royalties. Our implants and instruments are manufactured to our specifications by third-party suppliers who meet our manufacturer qualifications standards. Our third-party manufacturers are required to meet the standards of the Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), and the International Organization for Standardization, as well as other country-specific quality standards. The majority of our implants and instruments are produced in the United States.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

Sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of commissions to our domestic and select international independent sales agencies and consignment distributors, as well as compensation, commissions, benefits and other related costs for personnel we employ. Commissions and bonuses are generally based on a percentage of sales. Our international independent stocking distributors purchase instrument sets and replenishment stock for resale, and we do not pay commissions or any other sales related costs for international sales to distributors.

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs consist primarily of print advertising, trade shows, and other related expenses. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are recorded as a component of sales and marketing expense.

Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Our research and development expenses primarily consist of costs associated with engineering, product development, consulting services, outside prototyping services, outside research activities, materials, development and protection of our intellectual property portfolio, as well as other costs associated with development of our products. Research and development costs also include related personnel and consultants’ compensation expense.

Stock-Based Compensation

Prior to our Initial Public Offering ("IPO") in October 2017, we maintained an Amended and Restated 2007 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2007 Plan”) that provided for grants of options and restricted stock to employees, directors and associated third-party representatives of the Company as determined by the Board of Directors. The 2007 Plan had authorized 1,585,000 shares for award.

Immediately prior to our IPO, we adopted our 2017 Incentive Award Plan (the "2017 Plan") which replaced the 2007 Plan. The 2017 Plan provides for grants of options and restricted stock to officers, employees, consultants or directors of our Company. The 2017 Plan has authorized 1,789,647 shares for award.

Options holders, upon vesting, may purchase common stock at the exercise price, which is the estimated fair value of our common stock on the date of grant. Option grants generally vest immediately or over three years. No stock options were granted in any of the periods presented.

Restricted stock may not be transferred prior to the expiration of the restricted period, which is typically three years. The restricted stock that had been granted under the 2007 Plan had restriction periods that generally lasted until the earlier of six years from the date of grant, or an IPO or change in control, as defined in the 2007 Plan. All restricted stock granted prior to May 2014 vested upon our IPO and the remaining grants under the 2007 Plan vested six months after the IPO. We recognize the reversal of stock compensation expense when a restricted stock forfeiture occurs as opposed to estimating future forfeitures.
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We record the fair value of restricted stock at the grant date. Stock-based compensation is recognized ratably over the requisite service period, which is generally the restriction period for restricted stock.

Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. Comprehensive income (loss) includes foreign currency translation adjustments.

Income Taxes

We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the condensed consolidated financial statements. Under this method, we determine deferred tax assets and liabilities on the basis of the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities by using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that we believe that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence. If we determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the valuation allowance.

We record uncertain tax positions on the bases of a two-step process in which (i) we determine whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the positions and (ii) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, we recognize the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority.

“Emerging Growth Company” Reporting Requirements

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as a company is deemed to be an emerging growth company, it may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other regulatory requirements that are generally unavailable to other public companies. Among other things, we are not required to provide an auditor attestation report on the assessment of the internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

In April 2017, the SEC adopted new rules that included an inflation-adjusted threshold in the definition of an emerging growth company. Under the new inflation-adjusted threshold, we would cease to be an emerging growth company on the last day of the fiscal year in which our annual gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion. This is an increase of $70 million from the previous $1 billion threshold.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13 "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments". The ASU is intended to improve financial reporting by requiring timelier recording of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments held by
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financial institutions and other organizations. The ASU requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financials assets including trade receivables held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Financial institutions and other organizations will now use forward-looking information to better inform their credit loss estimates. Based on ASU 2019-10 and our status as a Smaller Reporting Company, the Company will adopt ASU 2016-13 effective January 1, 2023. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment". This pronouncement eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test and requires an entity to perform its goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. Under this guidance, an entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. It is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020, although earlier adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 and it did not have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12 "Income Taxes: Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes" intended to simplify the accounting for income taxes by eliminating certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside cost basis differences. The new guidance also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020 and interim periods within, with early adoption permitted. Adoption of the standard requires certain changes to be made prospectively, with some changes to be made retrospectively. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 and it did not have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.


NOTE 3 – BUSINESS COMBINATION

Telos

On March 9, 2020 the Company purchased the issued and outstanding membership interest of Telos for $1,750 in cash, including $81 of cash acquired, and 36,628 shares of common stock, $0.00025 par value per share, of the Company. The shares of common stock were valued at $47.78 per share. The Company incurred $20 of acquisition-related costs, that are included in general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations. The purchase price allocation set forth herein is preliminary.

The following table summarizes the total consideration paid for Telos and allocation of purchase price to the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date (in thousands):
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DescriptionAmount
Preliminary fair value of estimated total acquisition consideration$3,500  
Assets
Cash81  
Accounts receivable-trade215  
Property and equipment10  
Intangible assets1,160  
Total assets1,466  
Liabilities
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities60  
Total liabilities60  
Less: total net assets1,406  
Goodwill$2,094  

The fair value of identifiable intangible assets were based on valuations using a combination of the income and cost approach. The estimated fair value and useful life of identifiable intangible assets are as follows:
AmountRemaining Economic Useful Life
Trademarks / Names$210  Indefinite
Customer Relationships910  10 years
Non-competition Agreements40  5 years
$1,160  

Vilex and Orthex

On June 4, 2019, the Company purchased all the issued and outstanding shares of stock of Vilex and units of membership interests in Orthex for $50,000 in cash, adjusted for working capital, and 245,352 shares of common stock, $0.00025 par value per share, of the Company. The shares of common stock were valued at $40.76 per share, the volume weighted average trading price during the thirty day trading period ending on May 30, 2019. In addition, $3,000 was placed in an escrow account for a period of up to twenty months to cover certain indemnification obligations and to secure certain closing adjustments. The Company incurred $737 of acquisition-related costs, that are included in general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations. The purchase price allocation set forth herein is preliminary as to working capital amounts, intangible values and tax accounting matters.

The following table summarizes the total consideration paid for Vilex and Orthex and allocation of purchase price to the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date (in thousands):


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DescriptionAmount
Preliminary fair value of estimated total acquisition consideration$60,184  
Assets
Cash348  
Accounts receivable-trade2,088  
Inventories3,652  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets12  
Property and equipment7,540  
Intangible assets31,180  
Operating lease right-of-use asset323  
Total assets45,143  
Liabilities
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities563  
Operating lease liabilities323  
 Deferred tax liability1,175  
Other long-term liabilities68  
Total liabilities2,129  
Less: total net assets43,014  
Goodwill$17,170  

The fair value of identifiable intangible assets were based on valuations using a combination of the income and cost approach. The estimated fair value and useful life of identifiable intangible assets are as follows:
AmountRemaining Economic Useful Life
Trademarks / Names$4,610  Indefinite
Patents22,390  15 years
Internally Developed Software1,550  10 years
Customer Relationships2,570  12 years
Non-competition Agreements60  5 years
$31,180  

The Company recorded a measurement period adjustment during fiscal 2020 to increase inventory and decrease goodwill related to working capital adjustments to allocate inventory between Orthex and Vilex.

Since the Vilex products include adult offerings that are not core to the Company's pediatric business, the Company received Board approval to take the steps necessary to divest the non-core Vilex assets.

On December 31, 2019, the Company divested substantially all of the assets relating to Vilex's adult product offering to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Squadron Capital, LLC in exchange for a $25,000 reduction in a term note owed to Squadron in connection with the initial acquisition along with certain ongoing intellectual property rights. Of the $25,000 purchase price, $12,410 was attributable to the license of the Orthex intellectual property and the remaining $12,590 was applied to the Vilex assets and liablities divested.

After the issuance of our December 31, 2019 annual consolidated financial statements, and in connection with the preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements for the three months ended
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March 31, 2020, we identified and corrected an immaterial error related to the deferred revenue liability recognized from license of Orthex intellectual property as of December 31, 2019. The immaterial correction of the error resulted in a reduction of the deferred revenue liability and goodwill on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 of $12,410, based on the conclusion that the consideration transferred was allocable to a portion of certain Orthex patent assets sold concurrently with the sale of Vilex. We have evaluated the adjustment and, based on an analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors, determined that the related impact was not material to our consolidated financial statements for any prior annual or interim period presented. In order to accurately present the historical period, we have revised our December 31, 2019 balance sheet and related footnotes to reflect the immaterial correction of this error.

Changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the periods presented were as follows:

Total
Goodwill at January 1, 2019$  
Vilex Companies acquisition17,170  
Divestiture of Vilex in Tennessee, Inc. (3,397) 
Goodwill at January 1, 2020$13,773  
Telos acquisition2,094  
Orthex measurement period adjustment(688) 
Goodwill at March 31, 2020$15,179  

Pro forma net revenue and net loss from continuing operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019 assuming the Orthex and Vilex acquisition occurred on January 1, 2019 would have been $15,830 and ($3,491), respectively.


NOTE 4 - DEBT AND CREDIT ARRANGEMENTS

Long-term debt consisted of the following:
March 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Note payable to Squadron$19,900  $19,891  
Revolving credit facility with Squadron  5,000  
Mortgage payable to affiliate1,269  1,300  
Total debt21,169  26,191  
Less: current maturities126  124  
Long-term debt with affiliate, net of current maturities$21,043  $26,067  

On December 31, 2017, we entered into a Fourth Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement, or the Loan Agreement, with Squadron Capital LLC, or Squadron. Pursuant to the Loan Agreement, a majority of the term loan amounts under the previous agreement with Squadron were consolidated into a $20,000 term note, or the Term Note A, and a $15,000 revolving credit facility was established. Both facilities include interest only payments and provide for an interest rate equal to the greater of (a) three month LIBOR plus 8.61% and (b) 10%. The Loan Agreement also extended the maturity date to January 31, 2023.

In order to finance a portion of the cash consideration for the acquisition of the Vilex Companies, the Company entered into a first Amendment, or the Amendment, to the Loan Agreement (as so amended, the "Amended Loan Agreement"), with Squadron. The Amended Loan Agreement provided for a new $30,000 term loan facility, represented by a Term Note B, in addition to the existing $20,000 Term Note A
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and $15,000 revolving credit facility. Similar to the other facilities under the Amended Loan Agreement, the Term Note B was subject to interest only payments at an interest rate equal to the greater of (a) three month LIBOR plus 8.61%, and (b) 10.00%. The Term Note B, which would have matured no later than May 31, 2020, was paid in full on December 31, 2019 using $25,000 received in exchange for the divestiture of the adult product offerings of Vilex and the related Orthex license agreement, and $5,000 from the available Squadron revolving credit facility. On January 4, 2020, the Company paid $5,000 on the revolving loan agreement with Squadron.

Borrowings under the Amended Loan Agreement are secured by substantially all of the Company's assets and are unconditionally guaranteed by each of its subsidiaries with the exception of Vilex. There are no traditional financial covenants associated with the Amended Loan Agreement. However, there are negative covenants that prohibit us from, among other things, transferring any of our material assets, merging with or acquiring another entity, entering into a transaction that would result in a change of control, incurring additional indebtedness, creating any lien on our property, making investments in third parties and redeeming stock or paying dividends.

The fair value of our notes payable to Squadron were estimated based on prices for the same or similar issues and the current interest rates offered for the debt of the same remaining maturities, which are considered level 2 inputs in accordance with ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.” At March 31, 2020, the fair value approximated the carrying value.

In connection with the purchase of our office and warehouse space in Warsaw, Indiana in August 2013, we entered into a mortgage note payable to Tawani Enterprises Inc., an affiliate of Squadron. Pursuant to the terms of the mortgage note, we pay Tawani Enterprises Inc. monthly principal and interest installments of $16 with interest compounded at 5% until maturity in 2028, at which time a final payment of remaining principal and interest is due. The mortgage is secured by the related real estate and building. At December 31, 2019, the mortgage balance was $1,300 of which current principal due of $124 was included in current portion of long-term debt. At March 31, 2020 the mortgage balance was $1,269 of which current principal of $126 was included in current portion of long-term debt

Interest expense relating to notes payable to Squadron and Tawani was $551 and $303 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.


NOTE 5 - STRATEGIC ARRANGEMENTS

Effective December 1, 2007, we entered into a ten-year agreement with Case Western Reserve University (“CASE”) to assist in certain aspects of our research and development. Effective August 2, 2017, we entered into an Amended and Restated License Agreement to account for additional licensed product and extend the agreement for another ten years. The main focus of this research and development involves leveraging our exclusive rights to the Hamann-Todd Collection of the Cleveland National History Museum, the world's largest pediatric osteological collection, to assist in the design of implants which match pediatric bone curvature and structure.

In exchange for services, CASE receives certain royalties and up-front fees. The royalties and certain fees are contingent upon our obtaining FDA approval and the launch of our products into the marketplace. CASE receives a minimum annual royalty of $10 or a royalty of 3% of net sales on products, whichever is greater. Additionally, for each new product developed, CASE will receive milestone payments of $5 for FDA approval to sell our products within the United States and $10 for general product launch. Additionally, CASE receives a royalty of 3% of net sales on products fully developed and being sold in the marketplace.

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The royalty expense recognized related to the CASE agreement is recorded as a component of cost of revenue and was $31 and $37 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. At March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, $31 and $39, respectively, was due to CASE.


NOTE 6 - INCOME TAXES

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act") was signed into law in March 2020. The CARES Act lifts certain deduction limitations originally imposed by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("2017 Tax Act"). Corporate taxpayers may carryback net operating losses ("NOLs") originating during 2018 through 2020 for up to five years, which was not previously allowed under the 2017 Tax Act. The CARES Act also eliminates the 80% of taxable income limitations by allowing corporate entities to fully utilize NOL carryforwards to offset taxable income in 2018, 2019 or 2020. Taxpayers may generally deduct interest up to the sum of 50% of adjusted taxable income plus business interest income (30% limit under the 2017 Tax Act) for tax years beginning January 1, 2019 and 2020. The CARES Act allows taxpayers with alternative minimum tax credits to claim a refund in 2020 for the entire amount of the credits instead of recovering the credits through refunds over a period of years, as originally enacted by the 2017 Tax Act.

In addition, the CARES Act raises the corporate charitable deduction limit to 25% of taxable income and makes qualified improvement property generally eligible for 15-year cost-recovery and 100% bonus depreciation. The enactment of the CARES Act did not result in any material adjustments to our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2020.

For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we calculated the provision of income taxes by applying an estimate of the annual effective tax rate for the full fiscal year to the ordinary loss for the reporting period resulting in a zero tax provision consistent with prior periods.

The deferred tax assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, and no income tax benefit has been recognized in our condensed consolidated statements of operations for any of the periods presented. At December 31, 2019, we had available federal and state tax loss carryforwards of $86,807, state loss carryforwards of $64,026 and tax credits for federal and state tax purposes of $260. Federal net operating losses generated after January 1, 2018 will have an indefinite carryforward period. An ownership change under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code was deemed to occur on May 30, 2014. Given the limitation calculation, we anticipate approximately $16,200 in losses generated prior to the ownership change date will be subject to potential limitation. The estimated annual limitation is $1,062. A second ownership change under Section 382 was deemed to occur on December 11, 2018. The estimated annual limitation is $9,736, which is increased by $22,430 annually over the first five years as a result of an unrealized built in gain. NOLs sustained prior to May 30, 2014 will still be constrained by the lower limitation.

Management assesses the available positive and negative evidence to estimate whether sufficient future taxable income will be generated to permit use of the existing deferred tax assets. A significant piece of objective negative evidence evaluated was the cumulative loss incurred over the three-year period ended March 31, 2020. Such objective evidence limits the ability to consider other subjective evidence, such as our projections for future growth.


NOTE 7 - STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Stock Options

The fair value for options granted at the time of issuance were estimated at the date of grant using a Black-Scholes options pricing model. Significant assumptions included in the option value model include
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the fair value of our common stock at the grant date, weighted average volatility, risk-free interest rate, dividend yield and the forfeiture rate. There were no stock options granted in any of the periods presented.

Our stock option activity and related information are summarized as follows:
Weighted-AverageContractual Terms
OptionsExercise Price(in Years)
Outstanding at January 1, 202070,628  $30.97  1.2
Exercised(22,208) 30.97  
Outstanding at March 31, 202048,420  $30.97  1.2

Options generally include a time-based vesting schedule permitting the options to vest ratably over three years. At March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, all options were fully vested.

There was no stock-based compensation expense on stock options for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Restricted Stock

Our restricted stock activity and related information are summarized as follows:
Weighted-Average
Remaining
RestrictedContractual Terms
Stock(in Years)
Outstanding at January 1, 2020318,002  1.7
Granted105,710  
Outstanding at March 31, 2020423,712  2.3
Restricted stock exercisable at March 31, 2020  

At March 31, 2020, there was $10,014 of unrecognized compensation expense remaining related to our service-based restricted stock awards. The unrecognized compensation cost was expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.3 years or earlier upon an elimination of the restriction period as a result of a change in control event.

Stock-based compensation expense on restricted stock amounted to $958 and $471 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Warrants

Our warrant activity and related information are summarized as follows:
Weighted-Average
WarrantsExercise Price
Outstanding at January 1, 2020404  $30.97  
Outstanding at March 31, 2020404  $30.97  

For all periods presented, the warrants were issued at an exercise prices of $30.97 per share. The warrants have a ten-year term. At March 31, 2020, no warrants had been exercised. At inception, no fair value was assigned to the warrants.


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Treasury Stock

There were 4,014 shares of treasury stock issued as of March 31, 2020, with a cost of $187, at a weighted average cost of $46.51 per share.


NOTE 8 – NET LOSS PER SHARE

The following is a reconciliation of basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202019
Net loss attributable to common stockholders - basic and diluted$(4,945) $(3,020) 
Weighted average number of shares - basic and diluted16,423,853  14,367,056  
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders - basic and diluted$(0.30) $(0.21) 

Our basic and diluted net loss per share is computed using the two-class method.  The two-class method is an earnings allocation that determines net income per share for each class of common stock and participating securities according to their participation rights in dividends and undistributed earnings or losses.  Non-vested restricted stock that includes non-forfeitable rights to dividends are considered participating securities. 

Because we have incurred a net loss for all periods presented, diluted net loss per common share is the same as basic net loss per common share. The following contingently issuable and convertible equity shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for all periods presented:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20202019
Restricted stock423,712  302,812  
Stock options40,420  93,667  
Warrants404  6,790  
Total shares464,536  403,269  


NOTE 9 – BUSINESS SEGMENT

Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. We have one operating and reporting segment, OrthoPediatrics Corp., which designs, develops and markets anatomically appropriate implants and devices for children with orthopedic problems. Our chief operating decision-maker, our Chief Executive Officer, reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of making operating decisions and assessing financial performance, accompanied by disaggregated revenue information by product category. We disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers by operating segment. We determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories achieves the disclosure objective of illustrating the differences in the nature, timing and uncertainty of our revenue streams. We do not assess the performance of our individual product categories on measures of profit or loss, or other
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asset-based metrics. Therefore, the information below is presented only for revenue by category and geography.

Product sales attributed to a country or region includes product sales to hospitals, physicians and distributors and is based on the final destination where the products are sold. No customers accounted for more than 10% of total product sales for the three months ended March 31, 2020 or 2019. No customer accounted for more than 10% of consolidated accounts receivable as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.

Product sales by source were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
Product sales by geographic location:20202019
U.S.$13,384  $10,267  
International2,972  4,389  
Total$16,356  $14,656  

Three Months Ended March 31,
Product sales by category:20202019
Trauma and deformity$12,210  $10,017  
Scoliosis3,711  4,258  
Sports medicine/other435  381  
Total$16,356  $14,656  

No individual country with sales originating outside of the United States accounted for more than 10% of consolidated revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.


NOTE 10 - RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
In addition to the debt and credit agreements and mortgage with Squadron and its affiliate (see Note 5), we currently use Structure Medical, LLC (“Structure Medical”) as one of our suppliers. Structure Medical is affiliated with Squadron and we do not have a long-term contract with them. We made aggregate payments to Structure Medical of $1,201 and $763 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
On December 31, 2019, the Company divested Vilex for $25,000 to an affiliate of Squadron. In conjunction with the divestiture, the Company also entered into an exclusive perpetual license agreement to permit the purchasers of Vilex the ability to access intellectual property and sell products using the external fixation technology of Orthex, LLC to non-pediatric accounts. The Orthex license agreement was determined to have a value of $12,410 and is determined to be a sale of functional intellectual property, resulting in the derecognition or sale of certain patent intangibles acquired in the Vilex and Orthex acquisition.


NOTE 11 - EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLAN

We have a defined-contribution plan, OrthoPediatrics 401(k) Retirement Plan (the “401(k) Plan”), which includes a cash or deferral (Section 401(k)) arrangement. The 401(k) Plan covers those employees who meet certain eligibility requirements and elect to participate. Employee contributions are limited to the
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annual amounts permitted under the Internal Revenue Code. The 401(k) Plan allows us to make a discretionary matching contribution. Discretionary matching contributions are determined annually by management. Effective January 1, 2020, we have elected to match our employees' 401(k) contributions up to 4% of employees' salary. Prior to January 1, 2020, we matched our employees' 401(k) contributions up to 3% of employees' salary.


NOTE 12 – COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

Leases

At the inception of a contractual arrangement, the Company determines whether the contract contains a lease by assessing whether there is an identified asset and whether the contract conveys the right to control the use of the identified asset in exchange for consideration over a period of time. If both criteria are met, the Company calculates the associated lease liability and corresponding right-of-use asset upon lease commencement using a discount rate based on a borrowing rate commensurate with the term of the lease.

The Company records lease liabilities within current liabilities or long-term liabilities based upon the length of time associated with the lease payments. The Company records its operating lease right-of-use assets as long-term assets.

As of March 31, 2020, the Company has recorded a lease liability of $57 and corresponding right-of-use-asset of $58 on its condensed consolidated balance sheet.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we are involved in various legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. On January 20, 2017, K2M, Inc. filed suit against us in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware (K2M, Inc. v. OrthoPediatrics Corp. et al., Case No. 1:17-cv-0061) seeking unspecified damages for alleged infringement of U.S. Patent No. 9,532,816. The complaint was amended on August 21, 2017 to add, among other things, a claim of patent infringement regarding U.S. Patent No. 9,655,664. These patents relate to certain instruments used in our RESPONSE™ spine systems, which represent a portion of our total scoliosis portfolio. We have denied these claims and responded with counterclaims seeking declaratory relief that the patents in question are both invalid and not infringed. The parties attended a court-ordered mediation on October 24, 2017, which did not resolve the dispute, but as we move forward with this matter we welcome constructive discussions on a negotiated settlement. Nevertheless, we view our case as particularly strong and will continue to vigorously defend this matter. On June 28, 2018, the United States Patent and Trademark Office's Patent Trial and Appeal Board ("PTAB") instituted limited review concerning whether certain third parties had described the invention of certain of K2M's patent claims before allegedly invented by K2M. On July 10, 2018, the Court stayed the litigation pending the outcome of PTAB's review. On June 4, 2019, PTAB completed its review, finding, among other things, insufficient evidence of such description by the third parties. In early October 2019, the Court orally lifted the stay and has set a scheduling conference for November 12, 2019 concerning the matter. Although we believe that the K2M lawsuit is without merit and will vigorously defend the claims asserted against us, intellectual property litigation can involve complex factual and legal questions, and an adverse resolution of this proceeding could materially affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We are not presently a party to any other legal proceedings the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate materially affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.




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Royalties

As of March 31, 2020, we are contracted to pay royalties to individuals and entities that provide research and development services, which range from 0.5% to 20% of sales. Additionally, we have minimum royalty commitments of $500 annually through 2026.

We have products in development that have milestone payments and royalty commitments. In any development project, there are significant variables that will affect the amount and timing of these payments and as of March 31, 2020, we have not been able to determine the amount and timing of payments. We do not anticipate these future payments will have a material impact on our financial results.


NOTE 13 – SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

On April 1, 2020, we purchased all the issued and outstanding shares of stock of Apifix Ltd. ("Apifix") for 934,768 shares of OrthoPediatrics common stock $0.00025 par value per share, representing approximately $37,000 (based on a closing share price of $39.64 on March 31, 2020) and $2,000 in cash paid at closing. In addition to the payments made at closing and a working capital adjustment, the Company will make subsequent payments of $13,000 on the earlier of the second anniversary of closing or 150 clinical procedures using the Apifix system in the United States, $8,000 on the third anniversary of closing and $9,000 on the fourth anniversary of closing. The Company will also make a payment based on Apifix revenue for the twelve months ended June 30, 2024 multiplied by 2.25, subject to certain limitations. The amount of the last payment is not yet estimable at this time. ApiFix is an Israel and Boston, MA based medical device company with a less invasive spinal deformity correction system for non-fusion treatment of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

The Company incurred $60 of related acquisition costs in the first quarter 2020 which are reflected in general and administrative costs in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The acquisition qualifies as a business combination and will be accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting.

As a result of limited access to Apifix information required to prepare initial accounting, together with the limited time since the acquisition date and the effort required to conform the financial statements to the Company's practices and policies, the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete at the time of this filing. As a result, the Company is unable to provide the amounts recognized as of the acquisition date for the major classes of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, and goodwill. Also, the Company is unable to provide pro forma revenues and earnings of the combined entity. This information will be included in the Company's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020.


ITEM 2.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto contained elsewhere in this quarterly report, as well as the information under "Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."

Overview

We are the only medical device company focused exclusively on providing a comprehensive product offering to the pediatric orthopedic market in order to improve the lives of children with orthopedic conditions. We design, develop and commercialize innovative orthopedic implants and instruments to meet the specialized needs of pediatric surgeons and their patients, who we believe have been largely
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neglected by the orthopedic industry. We currently serve three of the largest categories in this market. We estimate that the portion of this market that we currently serve represents a $3.2 billion opportunity globally, including over $1.4 billion in the United States.

We sell implants and instruments to our customers for use by pediatric orthopedic surgeons to treat orthopedic conditions in children. We provide our implants in sets that consist of a range of implant sizes and include the instruments necessary to perform the surgical procedure. In the United States, our customers typically expect us to have full sets of implants and instruments on site at each hospital but do not purchase the implants until they are used in surgery. Accordingly, we must make an up-front investment in inventory of consigned implants and instruments before we can generate revenue from a particular hospital and we maintain substantial levels of inventory and instruments at any given time.

We currently market 34 surgical systems that serve three of the largest categories within the pediatric orthopedic market: (i) trauma and deformity, (ii) scoliosis and (iii) sports medicine/other. We rely on a broad network of third parties to manufacture the components of our products, which we then inspect and package. We believe our innovative products promote improved surgical accuracy, increase consistency of outcomes and enhance surgeon confidence in achieving high standards of care. In the future, we expect to expand our product offering within these categories, as well as to address additional categories of the pediatric orthopedic market.

The majority of our revenue has been generated in the United States, where we sell our products through a network of 36 independent sales agencies employing more than 167 sales representatives specifically focused on pediatrics. These independent sales agents are trained by us, distribute our products and are compensated through sales-based commissions and performance bonuses. We do not sell our products through or participate in physician-owned distributorships, or PODs.

We market and sell our products internationally in 43 countries, primarily through independent stocking distributors. Our independent distributors manage the billing relationship with each hospital in their respective territories and are responsible for servicing the product needs of their surgeon customers. In April 2017, we began to supplement our use of independent distributors with direct sales programs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand and further expanded to Canada in September 2018 and Belgium and the Netherlands in January 2019, and in Italy on March 1, 2020. In these markets, we work through sales agencies that are paid a commission, similar to our U.S. sales model. We expect these arrangements to generate an increase in revenue and gross margin.

On June 4, 2019, we purchased all of the issued and outstanding shares of stock of Vilex in Tennessee, Inc. ("Vilex") and all of the issued and outstanding units of membership interests in Orthex, LLC ("Orthex") for $60.2 million in total consideration, net of working capital adjustments. Vilex and Orthex (the “Vilex Companies”) are primarily manufacturers of foot and ankle surgical implants, including cannulated screws, fusion devices, surgical staples and bone plates, as well as Orthex Hexapod technology which is used to treat pediatrics congenital deformities and limb length discrepancies.

On December 31, 2019, we divested substantially all of the assets relating to Vilex's adult product offerings to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Squadron Capital LLC ("Squadron") in exchange for a $25.0 million reduction in a term note owed to Squadron in connection with the initial acquisition. As part of the sale, we also executed an exclusive license arrangement with Squadron providing for perpetual access to certain intellectual property.

On April 1, 2020, we purchased all of the issued and outstanding shares of stock of Apifix Ltd. ("Apifix") for (a) $2.0 million in cash, and (b) 934,783 shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.00025 par value per share, representing approximately $37.0 million (based on a closing share price of $39.64 on March 31, 2020). ApiFix, a corporation organized under the laws of Israel, has developed and manufactures a minimally invasive deformity correction system for patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) (the “ApiFix System”). The purchase price is subject to a post-closing working capital adjustment. In addition,
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